The Hawes of Walsham le Willows – A Probable Family History (Part Two)
Part 1 of this article concluded with the death of John “in the Bushes” Hawes in 1581 and reference to a scandal involving the family of John’s cousin, James Hawes.
A petition to the lord, Sir Nicholas Bacon, presented about 1590 contained accusations of “…lewd practices…” on the part of conspirators against the daughters of James Hawes. The petitioner is not identified other than as “…your orator…”, however, it is assumed that he was a member of the Hawes family, or at the very least, a close family friend.
The background to the petition starts with the 1556 will of John “of Cranmer” Hawes, first cousin of John in the Bushes, in which he directs his wife, Thomazine, to sell, either in her lifetime, or through her executors after her death, a parcel of land to his nephew, James Hawes, for £400. Thomazine transacted the sale nearly 30 years later, while still alive, in 1585. James, however, died three years later in 1588, leaving a widow, Marie, and three daughters, who are alleged to have been the victims of the perpetrated conspiracy.
The problems seem to have started when Henry Gray, who already had three children from a previous marriage, married the widow, Marie, shortly after James’ death. As I understand it, all customary land transactions were recorded in the manor court rolls; as well, a tenant would have his own book containing any entries pertinent to his own property. The specific charge was that Henry Gray in collaboration with one William Smythe, and “…two other of his confederates…”, “…desirous to defeat her (Marie’s) children of their rights…to the tenements and lands…”, did maliciously alter the various entries, going so far as to remove the appropriate page and replacing it with a forged substitute. William Hornbie, the steward of the manor, was also accused by the petitioner as being negligent in his duties in that he, “…relying upon the honesty of…Mr Smythe…” unwittingly falsified the roll entries. The plot thickens with the marriage of John Rowe to the eldest of Marie’s daughters, Marie; the petitioner claims that Rowe was also a co-conspirator of Henry Gray.
The petitioner was extremely aggressive in his investigation into the matter, with enough intrigue for the basis of a good mystery novel! He interviewed numerous Walsham people, including Thomas Flatman, brother-in-law of the deceased James, who swore that the amended entries could only be “…by corruption…”. The steward, Mr Hornbie, appears to have tried to pass off any responsibility in the affair, as the work of the previous steward, Mr Ashfield. Hornbie was obviously very nervous about the position that he found himself in, which was only heightened by the remarks of the bailiff, John Page, who, hearing of the incident remarked that “…if Mr Hornbie had done anything otherwise than what he ought to do, Sir Nicholas Bacon would not keep him long in his service…” The Petitioner managed to refute some of the presentments supporting the false claim by proving, in one instance, that John in the Bushes, who supposedly was a witness to the transaction was, in fact, in Finningham on the date in question. In the end, it seems that the petitioner so discredited the accused, that the judgement of Sir Nicholas could only lead to reinstatement of the inheritances of James’ three daughters. Unfortunately, the outcome of the petition is, as yet, unknown, but it is assumed that Henry Gray and his accomplices were found guilty of the alleged “…lewd practices…” and punished in some manner. Perhaps further work on the manor court rolls will eventually enlighten us as to the actual outcome.
John “in the Bushes” Hawes’ eldest son, Andrew “the Elder” Hawes, born in Walsham in 1542, was my 10th-great-grandfather. From his father’s will he inherited the sum of £5.00, which was not an overly generous bequest given John’s worth. However, it was probably only a token bequest given Andrew’s own circumstances. The 1577 survey of Walsham manor commissioned by Sir Nicholas Bacon, records Andrew as living at Green Farm, which included a large house and a substantial property of 28 acres. Over 400 years later, Green Farm, shown in the accompanying illustration, is still a beautifully maintained, occupied dwelling. By 1581, the year of his father’s death, Andrew was 39 years old, and his holdings had increased to 71 acres, so there was certainly no reliance upon his father’s will to improve his station in life. Andrew married Alice Lilley in 1575, and they had seven children, at least two of which died as small children.
Andrew himself died in 1609 at the age of 68; in his will he left Alice, “…my tenement wherein I now dwell (presumably Green Farm) with the orchards and gardens belonging to it and a croft with a field…called Mellfield…and a close called Westhorpe for life…” The will directed that Alice’s inheritance was to pass to their youngest surviving son, Thomas, on her death. He also required Alice to keep their eldest surviving son, Francis, “…for the term of her natural life…” Francis was also to be paid six pounds every year for life after the death of Alice. Unfortunately, Francis appears to have died when he was about 30 years old, and according to the “East Anglian Pedigrees”, he was buried on the same day as his father. Francis is listed in the “Pedigrees” as a yeoman. A curious aspect of Andrew’s will is the direction to Alice to keep Francis, suggesting that Francis may have been incapacitated in some manner and requiring care in some form. Andrew’s tenement, now Green Farmhouse, and some of his land was held from Church House manor whose custom of inheritance was primogeniture (the right of the eldest son to inherit), unlike that of Walsham manor whose custom was gavelkind (division of inheritance amongst all the sons). Robert (or Reynold), the second of Andrew’s three surviving sons, who apparently lived to adulthood and married, is not mentioned in the will. The youngest son, Thomas, was 21 at the time of his father’s death and seems to have been the major benefactor. In addition to assuming Alice’s inheritance upon her death, Andrew’s will left him Trendlewood Close and it appears that Thomas became the eventual owner of the Green Farm property.
If the previous discussion of Andrew’s will was not confusing enough, his son, Thomas Hawes, had the distinction of being both my 8th and 9th great-grandfather ! This may sound a bit bizarre, but the explanation has to do with an extra generation being introduced with the splitting of the descendancy line described below. Thomas was born in Walsham in 1588, and in 1616, he married Anne Page, who came from another very old family associated with Walsham, and references to the Page family are to be found in the earliest surviving manor court rolls. Their first born, Thomas, died at the age of three, and a second son, also named Thomas, was born in 1622; this Thomas is mentioned below, but it is the next son, John, who provides the continuity with the Hawes name. Thomas and Anne had three other children, but they disappear from the Walsham records after their baptisms. Thomas died sometime after 1629, and there is no indication of his having left a will.
John Hawes, son of Thomas and Anne, was baptised in Walsham in 1624 to become my 7th- great-grandfather. His brother, Thomas, was also my direct ancestor through a Walsham Hawes-Kidd-Pollard-Clarke-Baker-Hawes family line which reconnects with my great-grandparents, Daniel Hawes and Mary Baker, mentioned later. I decided to present John’s line here because of the Hawes continuity. While there is some disagreement as to John’s movements, it appears that he migrated from Walsham to Hoxne, some 12 miles to the east, which resulted in a line diversion through Eye before returning to Walsham four generations later. The reason for his move to Hoxne probably had to do with his wife, Sarah, who is assumed to have been a Hoxne native, although no entry could be found in the Hoxne parish register for their marriage. Nevertheless, the register does record the baptisms of nine of their children.
The point in time in history when the Hawes family fortunes took a turn for the worse seems to coincide with Civil War in England which commenced in 1642, lasting for the next several years. Historically, the family had been quite affluent over the previous 400 years, and John’s father, Thomas, had inherited significant parcels of land, such as Green Farm, in Walsham. To the extent that these lands were passed on to John or his siblings is unknown, but the riches-to-rags scenario rests squarely with these two generations and by the time of the 1695 survey, neither the Rookery nor Green Farm properties were in the hands of the Hawes family; in fact, the very name had by that time become quite rare in Walsham. John’s father may not have lived to be involved in the politics of the war, but John was certainly of an age to do so over the period of hostilities. East Anglia was chiefly Parliamentarian at the outbreak of the war and has been described as a Roundhead Heartland. It is conceivable that the Hawes family was Royalist in its sympathies, which may have led to some form of retribution and seizure of property by the victorious Parliamentarians. If such was the case, the family at least lost only land, whereas, in 1649, Charles I lost his head!
John was 54 when he died in Hoxne in 1676; Sarah lived on for another 15 years.
Jonathan Hawes senior, son of John and Sarah, was born in 1655 in Hoxne. His wife is not identified other than by her first name, Mary. They had a large family of at least 14 children, all born in Hoxne. The fate of all 14 is unknown, however, the records indicate that six died under the age of four years, while another five lived to adulthood and marriage, including the first-born son, Jonathan junior, who would become my 5th-great-grandfather. One would have to assume that anything approaching a 50% survival rate for children would be about normal for the times. With the reversal of the family fortunes, Jonathan likely worked as a farm labourer and forced to endure the hardships of dilapidated and overcrowded accommodation, at a time when it was not uncommon for one-bedroom houses to have 7–10 inhabitants. While most prosperous families had the luxury of candles and oil lamps, the homes of the farm workers were lit by rush lights, which were made by stripping rushes to expose the pithy centre core and then dipped in melted tallow, made from the greasy remains of animal fat. The end result was a light-source which burned dimly, creating a foul-smelling smoke. There would also be some light given off by the wood fire used for cooking. Hardships notwithstanding, 6th-great-grandfather, Jonathan, lived to be 68 years of age, dying in Hoxne in 1723; Mary had died three years earlier.
My 5th-great-grandparents, Jonathan Hawes junior and Mary Weavis were both born in Hoxne in 1684 and 1687 respectively. They married in 1713 and had four children, all born in Hoxne. There is no reason to believe that Jonathan, like his father before him, was anything other than a farm labourer, this being a time in England when 75% of the workforce were labourers. As such, Jonathan was probably a wage labourer, hired on a day to day basis, earning about one shilling a day for 10–12 hours of labour in the fields. The first born was named Jonathan after his father and grandfather before him, but he died as an infant, probably due to the unsanitary conditions prevalent in these times, which resulted in epidemics spreading like wildfire, sometimes devastating whole communities. The third born was also named Jonathan and he lived to be 11 years old, but a daughter, Mary, died at the age of two; both of the latter deaths occurring in 1728, and again one can only assume that the cause was some contagious disease such as typhoid. Before his death, young Jonathan may have already spent three or four years working beside his father in the fields, doing a full day’s work to contribute to the family budget. It is very unlikely that young Jonathan had any opportunity for schooling other than perhaps attending Sunday school, where education would be limited to three or four years of elementary reading at best. It would be another 150 years before compulsory education for five to 13-year-olds became law in England. With three of their four children dead by 1728, a similar fate befell Jonathan and Mary a year later when they died within three days of each other at the ages of 45 and 42 respectively.
The second of the four children, and the only one to survive to adulthood, John Hawes, son of Jonathan and Mary, was born in Hoxne in 1716, but took up residence in nearby Eye, marrying Eye resident, Mary Cason, daughter of William Cason and Susan Francis. Little is known of 4th-great-grandparents, John and Mary, other than the fact that they had 10 children, all born in Eye. Only three of the children could be traced through the various records to adulthood, so it is not certain how many might have died at a young age.
Samuel Hawes, the third child of John and Mary and my 3rd-great-grandfather, was born in Eye about 1739. His first wife may have been Margaret Mash of Walsham, but there is no strong evidence to that effect, and there appears to be no record of children from such a marriage. Whatever the circumstances of Samuel’s first marriage, his second wife was definitely Faith Dade, a native of Eye and 12 years his junior, whom he married in Eye in 1783 when he was 42 years old. Faith’s father, Daniel Dade, was a native of nearby Yaxley, but he moved to Eye when he married his first wife, Elizabeth Stannard. Daniel had four children by Elizabeth but she died in childbirth in 1752 and she and her fourth child, Thomas, were buried in Eye churchyard on the same day. Before Elizabeth’s death, however, Daniel had begun a relationship with Faith Annis of Stoke Ash, and at one point Elizabeth and Faith gave birth to two of his children one month apart ! Four months after Elizabeth’s death, Daniel married Faith, and their first legitimate child was my 3rd-great-grandmother, Faith Dade. Between Elizabeth and Faith, Daniel fathered 18 children.
Samuel and Faith Hawes relocated from Eye to Walsham shortly after being married and all six of their children were born in Walsham. The 1817 map of Walsham shows Samuel and his family living on Clay Street at the East side of the village near Cranmer Green, in an area which was subsequently enclosed, the house having been demolished. The parish register records that Samuel was 92 years old when he was buried in 1831, however, this is inconsistent with him being born in 1741, the year of his baptism. It is possible, however, that he could have been baptised when he was two years old, or the burial entry in the register could be in error by two years. Whether he was 90 or 92 when he died is remarkable either way!
My 2nd-great-grandfather, Daniel Hawes, son of Samuel Hawes and Faith Dade, was born in Walsham in 1793, and he and Walsham native, Mary Baker, were married on November 30, 1816. Daniel’s father, Samuel, was a witness at the wedding and as might be expected, all three, not being able to write, signed the parish register with their mark, an “X”. Daniel, like most Walsham men was an agricultural labourer, or Ag Lab, as the census takers liked to call them. On the 1817 parish map of Walsham le Willows, East Cottage on Badwell Road was shared by Daniel and E. Pollard; the cottage, shown in the accompanying illustration, had a partitioning wall in the centre of the dwelling to provide separate accommodation for two families, and was recorded as being owned by John Sharpe, who himself lived at The Lawns, which was the village squire’s residence. Since Daniel was an agricultural labourer, he undoubtedly worked on Sharpe’s farm. E. Pollard was probably Edward Pollard, Mary’s first cousin once-removed. Mary died in 1837 at the age of 42, four years after the birth of her ninth child. In 1841, Daniel was still living at East Cottage and appears to have been the only Hawes head-of-family listed in the census of that year for Walsham le Willows; the same Edward Pollard, a gardener, is shown at the same address with his wife and two sons. Edward’s living accommodation was obviously more spacious than that of Daniel, who had to fit his family of 11 plus another labourer, 17 year-old William Briggs, into the same amount of space on his side of the cottage. On the Tithe map the following year, 1842, the same cottage and garden was shown as being owned by John Hector Munro. The only occupant listed this time was Edward, however, this map included only the name of one occupant per dwelling, so Daniel may well have still been living there. In 1851, the population of Walsham le Willows was 1297, and there were two Hawes families recorded in the census of that year, that of Daniel, who was recorded as living on Palmer Street, and that of his brother, Samuel, a brewery worker, who was living on Finningham Road with his wife and step-son, Daniel Flatman, his wife’s son by her first husband, James Flatman. Daniel’s Palmer Street residence may have still been the same cottage previously identified, since Palmer Street had also been known as Badwell Road. Five of Daniel’s children were still living at home; he and his four sons, including great-grandfather, George Hawes, were all identified as Ag Lab’s. At that time also, Daniel’s one-year old grand-daughter, Harriet Hawes, the illegitimate daughter of Daniel’s daughter, Susan, was living in Daniel’s house with her mother. Susan never married, but had a total of five children before dying in 1862 at the tender age of 30.
It is interesting to note that all nine of the children born to Daniel and Mary appear to have lived to adult ages, which was unusual at a time when many children died before they reached the age of five. With virtually no sanitation of any sort, pollution and contamination were widespread among the population, producing terrible recurring epidemics of diarrhoea, gastric disorders and fevers, with typhoid a frequent visitor, and, after its first appearance in 1832, cholera. In the case of Daniel’s family, perhaps it was the relative remoteness of his cottage from the rest of the village population and the contaminated stream which flowed through Walsham, which gave them a degree of immunity to the diseases around them.
In 1861, Daniel, at age 66, was still living on Palmer Street, presumably in the same house, and still working as an Ag Lab. Only one son, John, was still living at home but he would marry four years later. Daniel’s son, Robert, a blacksmith, had married in 1851, but his wife had died about 1856 leaving him with four small children. It is possible that these children were taken in by Daniel, but it is more likely that the five children residing in his home in 1861, were the illegitimate children of his daughter, Susan, who was also still living with him. The issue is confused somewhat by the fact that Robert’s four children and Susan’s first four children were identically named and of the same ages ! Great-grandfather, George, does not appear in the 1861 census for Walsham, nor have I been able to find him in any other parish at that time.
By 1871, Daniel, still recorded as an Ag Lab, was 78 years old and living on Palmer St with his daughter, Elizabeth, her husband, John Clarke, a thatcher, their seven children, and 77-year-old Elizabeth Clarke, who is assumed to have been John’s mother. The 1881 census shows Daniel, at age 88, no longer working, but boarding in the village with John Hubbard and his family on Staple Way. John Hubbard, who was Daniel’s cousin, was the village rat catcher. Daniel died in 1890 at the age of 96, a testimony to the longevity of the Hawes family, his father, Samuel, having lived to be 92. Daniel was buried on January 14, 1890, presumably in the village churchyard extension, which was opened in the year of his death. Daniel’s newspaper obituary in the Bury Post, as the parish’s oldest resident, is interesting to read:
“Death of an Old Inhabitant – On Friday afternoon last, Daniel Hawes, the oldest inhabitant of this parish, passed away in a peaceful manner. He was in his 97th year, having been married and brought up a large family. He has been a widower for 53 years. The deceased was a champion bell-ringer, and when 93 years old, he stood at his usual place with the company of ringers, and rang a peal in his usual good style. About three years ago, he gave up ringing, but for two years after, he tolled the bell for funerals.”
It is probable that Daniel, like most poor people who were illiterate and toiled as farm-workers all their lives, never had a grave stone, but only a wooden cross, which by now would have totally deteriorated. I found no trace of his grave when I visited the cemetery in 1995.
As a 21-year-old in 1851, great-grandfather, George Hawes, was recorded in the census of Walsham as an Ag Lab. Unfortunately for George, and others like him, he was living at a time when farming was becoming more and more mechanised, creating less demand for the farm labourer. Although there was considerable resistance by the labour force to the increasing range of machinery being introduced, sometimes resulting in violence, the outcome was inevitable and under-employment became the order of the day. Bringing up a family in what was becoming hard times, forced many labourers to seek assistance from the parish, while others took employment in the growing towns and cities as miners or factory workers. George, being young and unmarried, obviously had more freedom of movement than a labourer with a wife and children, so very likely left Walsham in search of a better life, and perhaps an element of adventure as well. Just where this venture took George before his first record appears in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1866, has so far eluded me. In January of that year, George, at the age of 37, married Jane Daley, the daughter of Daniel Daley, who at one time had been a Roman Catholic priest in the City of Cork, Ireland, but that, as they say, is another story for another time. On the other side of her family, Jane, was the great-granddaughter of Loyalist John Williams, who fled the United States with his family at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War in 1783. New and diverse elements were being merged with my Hawes bloodline.
It can be safely said that George was the progenitor of the Nova Scotia Hawes line, which today is represented in various locations in Canada and as far away as New Zealand. George apparently took advantage of his earthy roots and Ag Lab background, becoming a professional gardener in Halifax. When he died of heart disease a few days after Christmas in 1906 at the age of 77, his obituary described him simply as “…a well-known gardener…”.
Tracing one’s ancestry back 22 generations is a formidable undertaking, and while I am not naive enough to think that the foregoing is totally free of error, I have done so to the best of my ability.
Having planted the Hawes seed in Canada, this seems like an appropriate place to bring this piece to a close.
- “Norfolk Families” – Sir Walter Rye p. 326
- “My Ancestors Came with the Conqueror” – Anthony J Camp p. 54
- “Feudal Terms of England” – Michael Adams
- “East Anglian Pedigrees” – edited by Anthony Campling p. 101
- “Visitation of Norfolk 1664” p. 97
- “Visitation of London” – p. 366–368
- 1283 Poll Tax for the Blackbourne Hundred – edited by E. Powell
- 1524 and 1568 Lay Subsidies for Walsham
- 1577 Field Book of Walsham – K. Dodd
- 1581 Survey of Walsham – Terratorium
- 1841–1891 Census Returns
- Parish Regisers: Walsham, Eye and Hoxne
- 1817 Parish Map of Walsham
- “A Brief History of Walsham le Willows” – Walsham History Group
- “Survey of Burials in Walsham” – Walsham History Group
- Hawes Family Wills from 1469–1683
Walsham History in Print
The long-awaited “Towards a Landscape History of Walsham le Willows” by Stanley West and Audrey McLaughlin, published by Suffolk County Council (No 85 East Anglian Archaeology) is now available priced £18. It records the results of the field-walking of the entire parish together with an explanation and conjectural maps of the 1577 and 1695 surveys. The origins of over 150 field and road names are discussed and much, much more.
“The Court Rolls of Walsham le Willows 1303–1350” edited by Ray Lock, published by Suffolk Record Society, is also now available. In contains the translated texts of 155 manor court rolls (Walsham and High Hall manors) including that of 1349 (the year of the Black Death), with a very detailed and informative introduction. Copies can be obtained from Boydell and Brewer Ltd. PO Box 9, Woodbridge, Suffolk IP12 3DF.
The parish registers of Walsham from 1539–1900 are now transcribed, printed and indexed and can be viewed at the Record Office in Bury and at Rob Barbers (The Old Bakery, Walsham). They are an invaluable source, especially for local families wishing to trace their ancestors and construct a family tree. They are also available on Compact Disc.
All the tombstones of burials in Walsham churchyard, the churchyard extensions, the Baptist chapel along Finningham Road and the few outside the Congregational Church have been surveyed and included in a small book which could be made available for sale if the demand is great enough. This survey proved to be very difficult and we would like to know of any mistakes, which could be corrected before further copies are printed. It also, can be seen at the Old Bakery and in St. Mary’s Church.
What the Papers Said
A notice to creditors appeared in the Bury Post of 4th March 1801: “Richard Page of Walsham le Willows, blacksmith, has assigned over his affects to Mr Nathaniel Gilson of that town for the benefit of his creditors. Creditors are requested to meet or send their accounts to the Blue Boar Inn on Friday 13th March 1801 to take into consideration the state of his affairs.”
On 11th March 1801 William King, bricklayer of Walsham, gave notice in the paper that he was moving to Bury St. Edmunds. His house was to be let or sold. “A copyhold dwelling house situated in the centre of Walsham le Willows consisting of a parlour, kitchen, wash-house, pantry, cellar and four bed-chambers with an out-building thirty-two feet long, together with a garden and orchard well planted of about 1/2 acre. For further particulars enquire of William King of Guildhall Street, Bury St. Edmunds or of George West of Walsham who will show the premises.”
On 18th March 1801 the Post carried news of an auction to be held on the premises of Mr. Vincent, carpenter and joiner, who lived near the Blue Boar in Walsham. “Household furniture and the stock in trade of Mr. Vincent who is going to change his situation. Consisting of sacken bottom bedsteads, green cheney [chenille?] and other hangings, feather beds, table and chairs, a good clock, kitchen range and crane complete, handsome barometer, good brewing and kitchen utensils. The stock comprises hand drag, timber chains, a pair of trace poles, a set of brass pulleys and ropes, very good long ladders, a quantity of old clay, lime, pamments, red bricks and pantiles etc.”
The Bury Post of 15th April 1801 reported that William Pallant, servant to John Simpson of Walsham, farmer, was convicted before Rev. H Patteson, clerk, of riding in his master’s tumbrel on the King’s Highway in the parish of Ixworth, not having any person on foot to guide the same and thereby obstructing and endangering a post-chaise passing on the road.
The Bury and Norwich Post 9th September 1801. “To be sold by auction at the premises at Walsham le Willows. All the live and dead farming stock, substantial implements in husbandry, neat and good household furniture, dairy and brewing utensils and other effects of Mr. Thomas Thompson who is turned out of his farm after living there for 20 years without lease or article and cannot get another.”
The Bury Post of 30th September 1801 reported that – “Mr T Kemball, long in the practise of surgeon and man-midwife, has taken a house in Walsham le Willows where he hopes by prompt and steady attention and tenderness in the exercise of his profession to merit the approbation of those who may favour him with their commands.”
On the 28th October 1801 the Post reported a forthcoming auction in the village – At the Blue Boar Inn and auction in two lots – Lot 1: All that messuage replete with every convenience and situated in the principal street of Walsham aforesaid, consisting of a good sized kitchen and parlour with a shop in front, cellar, pantry, three chambers with good floors, back-house detached, a small yard and a well with excellent water, now in the occupation of Mr. William Davey, hairdresser etc. an undeniable tenant from year to year, well worth 5 guineas pa. Lot 2: All that messuage and double tenement at the bottom of the same yard as the first lot with a large garden abutting the river, well planted, now in the occupation of Jonathan Smith and George Yellop, good tenants from year to year, well worth 7 guineas pa. The above premises are all copyhold of the manor of Walsham assessed to the land tax of only 2 shillings pa. and an annual quit rent of 3 pence. Particulars may be had of Mr. Blowers of Walsham and the tenants will show the premises which are in good repair and well situated for business.” [These premises are Clive House and Clive Cottage]
The 12th May 1802 issue of the Post reported a forthcoming auction at the premises of Mr. Alexander Moss in Walsham due to his lease expiring at Michaelmas. “Sixteen prime milch cows, all of them young and in fine condition, two with calves by their side, one full in calf, a two year old bull, a three year old heifer in calf and seventeen yearling sheep. Also all the dairy utensils comprising excellent leaded milk trays, good butter stands, barrel churn and a double cheese press. The above stock is very choice and prime. After the sale the feed of 38 acres of pasture land available until Michaelmas next, will be sold in lots.”